The zigzag geometry, and vertical structure plus the extra gravity load, makes it hard for you to clean your way up.
I know since we’ve all been there and witnessed all kinds of dirtiness on our way up.
Most people seem to feel stuck in or ignore this area of the house but there’s a solution to everything.
So don’t worry, we got you covered. Here is how we solve this uncooperative task. Below is the list of the top-selling vacuum cleaners designed for use on the staircase.
Cordless, lightweight, mobility, and efficiency are what you need. Be it old age, back pain, or a stubborn dusty carpet. These features are designed to tackle these problems.
Read on below to find out more about staircase vacuums.
Our Top 15 Best Vacuum For Stairs Quick Picks
BLACK+DECKER (BDH2020FL) Vacuum Cleaner
|BLACK+DECKER (BDH2020FL) Vacuum Cleaner||
||Check On Amazon|
Dyson Cinetic Vacuum Cleaner
Weight: 12.1 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Eureka 71B Vacuum Cleaner
Weight: 4.85 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Shark APEX Vacuum Cleaner (AZ1002)
|Shark APEX Vacuum Cleaner (AZ1002)||
Weight: 17.1 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Shark Rocket (HV292) Vacuum Cleaner
|Shark Rocket (HV292) Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 3.7 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Dyson Big Ball Vacuum Cleaner
|Dyson Big Ball Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 17.5 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Oreck Elevate BK95519 Vacuum Cleaner
|Oreck Elevate BK95519 Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 16.57 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Eureka NEU522 Vacuum Cleaner
|Eureka NEU522 Vacuum Cleaner||Weight: 21.5 pounds
Dimensions : 14 x 11.2 x 32.9 inches
|Check On Amazon|
Tineco Pure ONE S12 Smart Vacuum Cleaner
|Tineco Pure ONE S12 Smart Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 6.6 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
EUREKA RapidClean Vacuum Cleaner
|EUREKA RapidClean Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 5.26 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum
|Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum
Weight: 11 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum
|Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum||
Weight: 2.7 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Oreck BB900DGR XL Pro 5 Vacuum Cleaner
|Oreck BB900DGR XL Pro 5 Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 5 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Kenmore Elite 21814 Vacuum Cleaner
|Kenmore Elite 21814 Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 29.6 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Shark Navigator Deluxe NV360 Vacuum Cleaner
|Shark Navigator Deluxe NV360 Vacuum Cleaner||
Weight: 12.5 pounds
|Check On Amazon|
Best vacuum for stairs
I have selected the top 15 most reliable brands for Vacuum Cleaner that are most suitable for stairs.
- BLACK+DECKER (BDH2020FL) Vacuum Cleaner
- Dyson Cinetic Vacuum Cleaner
- Eureka 71B Vacuum Cleaner
- Shark APEX Vacuum Cleaner (AZ1002)
- Shark Rocket (HV292) Vacuum Cleaner
- Dyson Big Ball Vacuum Cleaner
- Oreck Elevate BK95519 Vacuum Cleaner
- Eureka NEU522 Vacuum Cleaner
- Tineco Pure ONE S12 Smart Vacuum Cleaner
- EUREKA RapidClean Vacuum Cleaner
- Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum
- Metro Vacuum VM6SB500 Professional Vacuum Cleaner
- Oreck BB900DGR XL Pro 5 Vacuum Cleaner
- Kenmore Elite 21814 Vacuum Cleaner
- Shark Navigator Deluxe NV360 Vacuum Cleaner
1. BLACK+DECKER (BDH2020FL) Vacuum Cleaner
If you have little children that try to crawl up and down the stairs very often, then you need to double-check the hygiene of your staircase.
Introducing the 20v Max cordless vacuum cleaner, having a lithium-ion battery as its most admired part of this vacuum machine and a charging base keeping it ready for use anytime.
Although, there is no wall mounting facility for the charging base and it takes up quite some space.
The Compact design of the Black decker is brilliant for a narrow or spiral staircase and a 4 feet long extendable hose is great to clean the dust off the staircase railings. The portable vacuum weighs only 3.2, so you can easily pull it up and down the stairs.
With a strong consistent suction power, a dustbowl capacity of 20.6 ounce, and a special pet brush, it can successfully manage the cleaning of the house.
This vacuum also does not require much maintenance as it comes with an easy to wash and empty filter and bowl.
The most efficient 3 stage filtration system prevents air pollution in the house and traps dust and particles of all sizes from being released back into the air.
2.Dyson Cinetic Vacuum Cleaner
Cats love to shed their fur, especially on the staircase. If your pet creates a mess in your house then the Dyson Cinetic Vacuum Cleaner is the right choice for you.
The disposal system is remarkable. Once it catches pet hair, the tangle-free turbine system prevents clogging, unlike in most vacuums. With only a push of a button and without interaction with the hands, you can dispose of the waste in the bin quickly.
Dyson brings an innovative model of a vacuum cleaner. As compared to other vacuums this machine comprises a hygienic bin emptying feature. Hence, there is no need to wash or replace dirty filters now and then.
The science behind the easy movement of the machine in awkward places in modern ball technology. Be it zero level or the stairs, it will follow you as you move.
However, the attachment storage is not sufficient as they fall out when bumped into something.
Dyson claims their highly reliable motors never lose suction power as the cinetic technology traps the debris which is likely to clog and ruin vacuums that have filters.
From start to finish the vacuum is engineered with perfection. The floorhead is capable of removing fine to coarse dust and particles.
Moreover, the stiff nylon bristles of the turbine head remove stubborn dirt from the carpet, and the soft carbon fiber filaments remove dust from hard floors.
3. Eureka 71B Vacuum Cleaner
They say a staircase is the backbone of the house and should be maintained the same way as any other part of the house. Although, the highs and lows make it more troublesome.
Meet the Eureka vacuum cleaner, a perfect solution to your problem.
This handheld vacuum cleaner is smaller in size about 20.00 x 12.00 x 10.00 Inches and weighs as light as 4.85 pounds. You can easily store it under the staircase and even if it’s visible, the yellow-colored compact model adds nicely to the decoration.
It may seem small but it cleans big. The exclusive dual motor technology for both brush and suction to suck out fine particles over a wide area. The motorized brush is a highlighted feature and also very easy to use with only a push of a button.
One drawback of this vacuum is that the handle is wide and uncomfortable to hold with one hand.
The exclusive Riser Visor system is specially designed for vacuuming both the vertical and horizontal surface area of the stairs as it concentrates the suction for ultimate cleaning.
The 20 feet cord allows it to cover a vast year be it stairs, floor, carpet, or a vehicle, you can easily reach every nook and cranny without any interruption.
Eureka is a reliable brand, offering great services since 1909. It offers a 1-year warranty and a money-back guarantee on any defect.
4.Shark APEX Vacuum Cleaner (AZ1002)
Staircases are often designed to be at the entrance of the house, which is why it’s look is just as important as the hallway.
Technically, everyone agrees hand Vacuums are much suitable for staircase cleanup. The shark APEX has the powered lift away feature you can detach the pod and don’t have to carry it along with you on the stairs.
The self-cleaning Zero M technology gets rid of stuck hair and prevents clogging of the machine.
Replacement parts are not covered in the warranty policy.
Duoclean technology with both bristle plus soft brush system for both carpet and hard floor staircase. It cleans the carpet from deep within the roots and polishes the floor to give a shiny appearance.
The upright cleaning mode is the classical way to clean the stairs. In addition to the anti-allergen complete seal technology and HEPA filter, it can grab pet hair and trap air particles efficiently.
5. Shark Rocket (HV292) Vacuum Cleaner
Cleaning the floors is hectic for a clock-watcher but oh boy, cleaning the staircase is a real fuss.
What a staircase needs are the shark rocket HV292. Why is it so special? Due to the
The portable and extremely lightweight body measured even less than 4 pounds.
The ultimate performance is remarkable, possessing a powerful cleaning system, added by the advantage of handy accessories that gets the job done impressively.
The Maron quick pick-up Vacuum Cleaner takes care of your pet mess with the unique TruePet Motorized Brush made for deep cleaning. Other Accessories include a crevice tool, dusting brush, stretch hose.
However, the upholstery tool, one of the most important and basic accessories, is not included.
This hand Vacuum consists of a quick and easy-to-empty dust cup by only pressing a button. It requires no cost on maintenance as it has Washable filters and no bag replacement hassle.
The 15-foot-long power cord makes it easy for you to reach the height of the stairs and most importantly, no need to wait for recharging before use.
6.Dyson Big Ball Vacuum Cleaner
Decided to keep a carpeted staircase in your home? Then you also might have decided to bring in a special vacuum cleaner that will ensure the dust and allergens be bygones.
Bring home the Dyson big ball Vacuum Cleaner, made to function effectively on both carpet and hard floor.
Equipped with the finest technology, the Carbon fiber turbine head and stiff nylon bristles act together to clean thick and thin dust as well as dust.
Dyson adds their mark with the ‘pick themselves up’ feature, it needs more than a bump to topple over a Dyson vacuum. A great saver, as you’re most likely to kick the Vacuum down the stairs.
Another charmer is the hygienic dirt ejector, automatically forcing out the trapped waste as you empty. The Ball technology enables the vacuum to follow you around the home without you having to drag it everywhere.
One drawback is that the on/off button is located on the ball so you gotta bend down every time you have to use it.
Designed with precision, the 4.7-gallon capacity is enough to hold a great amount of waste. While the 21 feet cord length is sufficient to move up and down the stairs easily.
Radial cyclones and HEPA filters prevent the release of dust into the hair and maintain a healthy environment.
Last but not least, Dyson provides a 5-year limited time warranty on parts and labor.
7.Oreck Elevate BK95519 Vacuum Cleaner
Oreck vacuum cleaners are made and produced in the US. Every purchase is the support of US jobs and a boost of encouragement to the US local market.
This magnificent vacuum cleaner does wonders with the high-performance cleaning system. The HEPA filtration with SANI SEAL will trap 99.9% of the sucked particles with guarantee in an extra-large vacuum bag.
Although the bags are super-efficient, they are expensive to replace again and again.
Cleaning floors that transition between carpet and floor can be confusing. Oreck introduces the 2-speed fingertip control, adjusting brush roll speeds quickly for both floor types.
The LED lights enable you to see better on light-colored backgrounds and barely visible particles. This cordless and lightweight upright vacuum cleaner weighs only 16.57 pounds. Thus, can easily be dragged and glided along the stairs.
8.Eureka NEU522 Vacuum Cleaner
Gravity isn’t that kind when you’re working on the stairs with old age and back problems. What you need is an easy to control vacuum machine for stairs and the Eureka NEU522 is the perfect pick.
Comprising a 35 feet long cord, attach it to any switchboard and clean towards the stairs using the easy-glide wheels plus the swivel steering. You can even stand at ground level and connect the 12 feet long hose with the detachable handle, covering the majority of the stairs in one step.
However, the ball above the head makes it hard to clean under the couch.
If your stairs are covered with carpet then the sensors will detect the floor type and adjust the height automatically and accordingly for better cleaning results.
Cleaning is made efficient by the multi-cyclone filtration system coupled with the HEPA filter to trap 99.97% of dust and allergens to preserve the safe and healthy lifestyle in the walls of your house.
A great number of handy accessories include the Pet Turbo Brush, multi-angle adapter, crevice tool, and dusting brush. The crevice tool helps clean the corners and borders between the riser and horizontal space of every stair. While the multi_angle adapter design helps remove dust from spaces like the railing.
9.Tineco Pure ONE S12 Smart Vacuum Cleaner
Here’s a highly sophisticated and next level vacuum cleaner of the modern-day with integrated technology you won’t find in other vacuum cleaners.
No compromise on cleaning, the iLoop(TM) Smart Sensor Technology is attracted to the hidden crumbs, dust, and debris using specialized sensors, so even if you leave out a bit, this vacuum cleaner won’t spray it.
Monitor the machine’s performance using the smart LED touchscreen display and smartphone application with details of the battery life, channel blockage, sensor malfunction, reminders, automatic mode, and much more.
The automatic adjustment of suction power, optimization of battery life, and extended runtime up to 100 minutes according to use prove to be efficient and convenient.
The new and distinguished features account for a higher budget, as compared to other vacuum cleaners.
The super performance of the 500W motor can provide 6 times more suction power compared to other conventional vacuums. Switch from manual to automatic mode and the machine will take care of the rest.
This cordless Pure one S12 is lightweight and can easily move along the stairs. Convert it into a handheld vacuum to reach every crevice and corner of the staircase, normally left behind.
Moreover, the PURE ONE S12 also includes a huge variety of accessories such as the LED Multi-tasker Power Brush, Mini Power Brush, Pre-Filters,
Automatic Pre-Filter Cleaning Tool, 2-in-1 Dusting Brush, Soft Dusting Brush, Crevice Tool, Flexible Long Crevice Tool, and Dual Charging Wall-Mounted Dock.
10.EUREKA RapidClean Vacuum Cleaner
Keeping the best for the last, the Eureka Rapid clean Vacuum Cleaner is one of a kind.
With the LED headlight system you can detect thin and light-colored strands of pet hair easily. Evolutionary motor technology does not go easy on any type of waste.
Featured by ‘Grab and Go’.The cordless vacuum weighs only 5.26 pounds, is easy to move, glide, and carry anywhere in the house especially on the stairs. The swivel steering and low head height aids in swift control of the machine.
The Rapidclean vacuum does not stand upright other than when attached to the wall mount or supported by a wall or furniture.
Storage made simple by hanging it on the wall next on the stairs. It includes a crevice tool and 2-in-1 dusting brush and cleans multiple types of floors rapidly with variable suction power.
Take your time in cleaning away the existence of dust mites and germs, as it comes with a 40 min long-lasting Lithium battery. Teamed up with the Cyclonic filtration system which traps dust and makes escape impossible.
11. Sanitaire S3681D Sanitaire Mighty Mite Vacuum
The Sanitaire S3681D is a performance-focused commercial quality vacuum cleaner. It provides convenience for use on stairs and gives amazing results.
How does it do that? With the 7 feet hose and 20 feet power cord, the length can easily match the stairs’ length in an average house in America. Although, you even have the option to carry this 11.5-pound lightweight vacuum by using the top mount handle.
Hold on; there’s more. Achieve a cleaning path of 10 inches easily with 2 plastic extension wands and one metallic telescope wand for a widespread reach in one go.
It comes with a dusting brush for the side railings and a flexible suction hose for super suction, powered by 12 Amp.
Moreover, the dust capacity is 2.6 dry qts, and once you’re done, there’s no need to clean the disposable paper dust bag.
However, disposable paper bags need to be purchased separately as Sanitaire offers only limited complimentary ones.
The 2 in 1 vacuum can be used for both carpet and bare stairs since it possesses the auto carpet height adjustment feature.
Comes with deluxe features such as the rug/floor nozzle, extra-large bag, and easy-rolling wheels. Some more onboard tools include a Tool caddy, Upholstery nozzle, and Crevice nozzle.
12. Metro Vacuum VM6SB500 Professional Vacuum Cleaner
The professional VM6SB500 is one of the innovative products of the Metropolitan Vacuum Cleaner Co. Inc, aka Metrovac. Offering services for over 60 years, they specialize in producing revolutionary vacuums with portability and efficiency.
The lightweight and easy to carry hand vacuum provides a unique high-velocity suction, powered by 4.5 Amp and a 500W motor. Metrovac provides a 5-year warranty for the motor.
The elegantly designed vacuum is made of steel with eye-catching chrome finishing, acceptable for storing in the hallway.
It proves to be a great cleaning item for the stairs due to the long cord and sturdy suction hose measuring 12 feet and 20 inch respectively. The 2.7-pound weight feels as light as a feather when compared to other vacuums. The compact design measures dimension 7.25 x 7 x 14 inches.
Since it has special features, the price tag is relatively high.
Cleaning the stairs regularly doesn’t add much to the waste storage capacity. So the Bagless design is cost-efficient and easy to dump right after you finish cleaning. Great for upholstery, carpet, tiles, stairs.It comes with a shoulder strap to give support and distribute the weight of the machine. Other handy tools such as an upholstery tool, Pik-all Nozzle, power unit, crevice tool, dust brush, and upholstery nozzle are included for multiple functions.
13. Oreck BB900DGR XL Pro 5 Vacuum Cleaner
Oreck XL Pro 5 is proudly manufactured in the U.S.A. Oreck vacuums are made with the U.S and globally sourced components.
It’s designed to give accessibility to a wider cleaning range with a telescope extension wand, 4 feet flexible hose, and 30 feet long electric power cord to avoid interruption mid cleaning for replugging.
Clean the stairs with an easy to carry vacuum by a convenient hand handle or shoulder strap. Say goodbye to back pains as the BB900DGR XL Pro 5 weighs only 5 pounds.
The air exhaust is very forceful and too hot.
Just because it’s compact and light and small doesn’t mean it doesn’t have power. The Pro 5 has an extraordinary long-lasting high vortex motor with ultimate suction power.
Moreover, the disposable bags require less maintenance, and the HEPA filters don’t let any particles free into the air.
It is easily stored and doesn’t take up much space as the compact design measures 13.5 x 5.25 x 8 inches.
Get 11 accessories with the Oreck vacuum for extraordinary cleaning. The package includes a slinky hose, dusting brush, upholstery tool, and crevice tool.
14. Kenmore Elite 21814 Vacuum Cleaner
There’s a high probability your previous vacuum broke by falling down the stairs. Fear no more; the Kenmore Elite 21814 will take care of this problem.
The stair grip safety feature is designed to provide the perfect balance so that the vacuum does not topple over upon bumping.
The lightweight extension wand made with aluminum is adjustable to a maximum length of 11 feet.
The special Crossover system allows you to switch between carpet and hard floor mode using your foot and without bending.
The start/shut button is located on the canister instead of the wand or any other easily reachable area.
The 26 feet retractable cord provides extended reach and a cleaning width of 14 inches.
It leaves no dust, debris, or pet hair behind with LED lights’ aid, a dirt sensor, pet power mate, and motorized brush attachment.
The Dual Motor System provides 20% excessive power, resulting in effective brush rotation, excellent suction strength, and deep cleaning.
Get versatile accessories, including a dusting brush, crevice tool, second bare floor tool, and for thorough cleaning.
15. Shark Navigator Deluxe NV360 Vacuum Cleaner
The Shark NV360 is another remarkable model for cleaning stairs. With the lift away feature, you can enjoy 2 in 1 application. Just lift the canister for use on stairs to decrease the weight and put it back on when doing the rest of the house.
Another easy switch option is the brush roll shutoff, used according to the suitable floor type.
Allow swift movement on the zigzag stairs with the steering system. Easily pull and push the vacuum as it weighs only 12.5 pounds with the canister and 7 pounds without.
The five-year warranty does not apply to replacement parts, such as the brush roll.
The dust won’t bother you anymore as the complete seal technology prevents allergies from escaping back into the air. While the HEPA filters approved by the ASTM trap, 99% of the particles larger than 0.3 microns.
An Upholstery tool and a 5.5-inch crevice tool is also included with the package.
Buying guide for the vacuum for stairs
Choosing the best vacuum cleaner is a more challenging decision as there are thousands of options out there in the market. And especially if you are looking for a vacuum that can do well with the staircase can add more confusion to the decision.
Your confusion will be turned into confidence after reading this buying guide. Let me explain the features that can help you clean the house more precisely and especially your stairs.
Specify your needs
Of course, a definition of the need is the most crucial factor of the purchase that will determine what to get.
If its a vacuum for stairs, it needs to be handy and lightweight so that you can lift and drag it easily all way up to the last end of the stairs.
A cordless vacuum is more suitable for this purpose, but a corded can also serve the job. If it has to be corded, make sure that it must be long enough to reach till the end.
Your vacuum for stairs should be more efficient as it needs to reach corners and suck more dirt, hair, and sticky particles.
Your handheld vacuum may have less suction power and less runtime if you need to clean many of them.
So the need is to specify the area and watch out the run time and suction power of your cordless vacuum carefully.
Owning a separate handheld vacuum for stairs is also a good idea to clean more easily and thoroughly.
Mostly corded vacuums are more powerful and have greater suction power as they are powered with electricity and powerful speed motors.
So corded is also a good option if you want a vacuum for cleaning multiple surfaces.
Attachments or tools
Attachments of your vacuum play an essential role in cleaning and even choosing the vacuum. Attachments can help you reach the corners and suck the most out of the surface.
Take an example of a combination brush or additional floor nozzles that can dig deep down to clean the surface.
Specialized tools and accessories are made to meet the needs of specific cleaning demands. A motorized brush is a real ease to use if it’s supposed to clean a carpeted stairs.
You can add some additional tools and extensions while purchasing your required vacuum.
Always pay special heed towards maintaining your vacuum as it can add a lot of ease or hassle to your life.
A vacuum with a HEPA filter can demand replacements and washable filters are way easier to maintain at home. Rinse your filter and good to go.
The same is the case with bagged vacuums.
Bagged vacuums demand some more cost to maintain the tool. If you are OK to clean the dustbin of your vacuum, you can buy a bagless vacuum to avoid spending more money.
A vacuum is a long term investment, so always check if the tool, attachments, filters, and brush rollouts are readily available so that you can replace them when they are out of order.
FAQ for Best Vacuum for Stairs
- What are the best Vacuum for both carpet and bare stairs?
The Shark Apex AZ1002 with its bristle plus soft brush system works best in both carpet and hard floor staircase. Another example is the Oreck Elevate BK95519 Vacuum Cleaner that changes the speed of brush roll according to the floor types, with only a button touch.
- Which Vacuum accessory is specifically designed to clean the highs and lows of a staircase?
The crevice tool is credited to be the most helpful to clean the stairs as it pulls out dust and debris from all corners and edges of a zigzag staircase shape.
- What are the best features of a vacuum for stairs?
A vacuum cleaner for stairs should be lightweight so it can be easily dragged up and down the stairs, assisted with special accessories to clean the edges and corners of the staircase.
A cordless, battery operated hand Vacuum is preferable or a Vacuum with extra long cords.
Other basic features such as strong motor, filters, etc for both carpet and hard floor.
- Which brand offers a warranty for vacuum cleaners used for stairs?
Reliable brands like Eureka, Dyson, and Shark provide limited time warranty for 1 to 5 years, depending on the model of the vacuum.
- Which Vacuum for Stairs is the best at cleaning and requires less maintenance?
Easy to wash and empty filters, require no extra cost. Such a feature is present in models such as the Decker Vacuum cleaner. Unlike some vacuums require bag replacements. Moreover, the Dyson Cinetic vacuum requires only a press of a button to remove waste from the waste compartment.
- Are handheld vacuum cleaners better than the vacuums with cord for stairs?
A handheld vacuum cleaner, if lightweight, is safer to use and reach all length and corners of the stairs. Whereas. A vacuum cleaner with a cord is limited and usually not suitable for easy movement on the staircase.
- Cordless Vs cord. Which Vacuum Cleaner is better for the staircase?
Cordless vacuum cleaners are battery operated and can easily be maneuverable without the tension of finding a switchboard nearby or tripping over the cord. The cord is sometimes not long enough to cover the entire set of stairs.
- What are the best lightweight and portable Vacuum Cleaners for stairs?
Vacuum cleaner weight can range from 5 pounds and above. Such as the Eureka 71B vacuum cleaner is compact in shape and light in weights. The handheld vacuum can be easily carried up and down the stairs.
- What accessories are used to aid vacuum cleaners for stairs?
A crevice tool and dusting brush help clean the corners, edges, and boundaries between the riser and horizontal space of the steps in the stairs.
- Which Vacuum Cleaner is balanced enough not to topple over when cleaning the staircase?
Tineco Pure ONE S12 is equipped with the anti-topple feature as it’s precise shape regains balance when bumped into something.
With the features mentioned above, cleaning the staircase doesn’t seem like an impossible task.
Give these special Vacuum cleaners a try and see for yourself.
Remember, vacuum shopping depends on the individuals’ fitness and structure of the staircase in your own house.
Breathe with ease in your home and enjoy a clean and healthy environment.